Children and Young People’s Mental Health Coalition’s Submission to the Inquiry on the Role of Education in Children and Young People’s Mental Health

We are the Children and Young People’s Mental Health Coalition (CYPMHC). We bring together over 100 leading organisations from across England to form a powerful voice to campaign and influence policy on issues around children and young people’s mental health and wellbeing. This unified voice is essential because through our members we cover the whole range of agencies that make up the wider children and young people’s mental health system.

Our Chair and Vice Chair are Professor Dame Sue Bailey and Dr Pooky Knightsmith. Our Steering Group comprises of ACAMH, Action for Children, Anna Freud National Centre for Children & Families, Barnardo’s, B-eat, British Association of Counselling & Psychotherapy, British Psychological Society, British Youth Council, Carers Trust, Centre for Mental Health, Charlie Waller Memorial Trust, Children’s Society, Family Action, Mental Health First Aid, Mental Health Foundation, MindEd, NSPCC, Place2Be, Royal College of Paediatrics & Child Health, Rethink Mental Illness, Royal College of Nursing, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Tavistock Relations, The Mix, Winston’s Wish, YoungMinds and Youth Access.

We have a good track record of working around mental health in schools[1]. We:

  • produced Resilience and Results in 2011 – a guide to schools on mental health and wellbeing[2]
  • ran a competition to identify and reward good practice in schools
  • worked with Public Health England and teachers to develop a framework to help schools implement a whole school approach to mental health and wellbeing[3]
  • sat on the CAMHS Taskforce to develop Future in Mind[4]
  • developed 3 key elements that need to be implemented in order to promote mental health and wellbeing[5]
  • aim to host a seminar shortly on mental health in schools and highlight some of the good work that our members are doing in this area.
  • Prof Dame Sue Bailey is chairing the Schools NorthEast, Schools-Led Commission on mental health – Healthy MindEd

We can help this Inquiry by sharing our collective knowledge and experience around this area; feedback on findings from the Healthy MindED Commission[1]; share examples of good practice, and bring in the voice of schools, young people and the wider children and young people’s mental health secto

Summary and Recommendations

There needs to be a better balance between attainment and wellbeing in schools.A good education is a protective factor for mental health, and good mental health helps you get a good education - so it is a virtuous circle.[1]Most schools understand this but aren’t really rewarded for their work to support their pupils’ mental health.

  • DfE to recommend that schools strive towards a better balance in the curriculum, which incorporates mental health and wellbeing within PSHE lessons or the wider curriculum.These lessons need to be high quality, well executed, age appropriate and meet pupils’ needs.
  • Schools should be adequately funded and supported to play their part, within a wider system, to support pupils’ mental health and wellbeing.     

School staff, in all settings, need better initial teacher training (ITT) and ongoing continued professional development (CPD) and need to be better supported to understand children and young people’s development, and mental health and wellbeing.

  • All school staff should receive high quality and fit for purpose training around child development and mental health that gives them a better understanding of mental health, but also is of practical benefit to them in the classroom.
  • This training will help schools inform pupils about mental health and wellbeing, and identify and signpost them to further support when needed.
  • The Prime Minister recently announced improvements in training, which we fully support, but needs to include primary schools as well.
  • Child development and mental health are complex subjects so we want to ensure that training for school staff is ongoing, of high quality, practical and reflective of the individual needs of each region and school.
  • There is a need to support the mental health and wellbeing of school staff, so they are less stressed. This should help retention rates, but also help demonstrate to pupils what it means to be mentally healthy.

Schools are a key partner in supporting the mental health and wellbeing of their pupils.

  • There needs to be more targeted support within schools, which meets pupils’ needs - this could be a school counsellor, nurture groups, parenting support and so on.
  • Linked to this, is the need for the full range of mental health support within the community - NHS CAMHS services, voluntary sector services, social care and so on depending on need.
  • We need good relationships between schools and other partners such as CAMHS, social care and so on, to establish joint working arrangements, referral pathways, share skills, knowledge and expertise, so they can train and learn from each other.

Work to support pupil’s mental health has to be underpinned by a whole school approach.We developed a framework with Public Health England that has 8 key principles that need to be in place.[2]We believe that they are fundamental to implementing any of this work in schools. They include good leadership within the school and an ethos which is sensitive to mental health.

  • DfE continues to encourage schools to implement a whole school approach to promoting mental health and wellbeing.

As set out in Future in Mind, children and young people’s mental health requires a whole system approach.Schools are a key partner but are often not included in strategic planning and commissioning of the full range of children and young people’s mental health (CYPMH) support.

  • We suggest that local authorities and Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) involve schools in Health and Wellbeing Boards and other strategic bodies within the area. So schools are involved as key players in Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs), local transformation work, commissioning plans and so on.
  • Issues about how to put this into practice should be covered in the forthcoming Green Paper on children and young people’s mental health, recently announced by the Prime Minister.

Serious mental health problems often emerge in the teenage years. So it is important to promote mental health earlier on in childhood – from the very early years and primary school age, in order to reduce the incidence of mental health problems in the teenage years and beyond. From a school’s perspective, it should include pre-school settings as well as school and college age children and young people.

  • We need a properly funded public health approach to children and young people’s mental health, that starts from conception, to get every child off to a good start in life.

Why Children and Young People’s Mental Health & Wellbeing is Important

  • 1 in 10 or about 850,000 5-16 year olds have a mental disorder[1]
  • 32% of girls aged 15 and 11% of boys self-harm[2]
  • 75% of adult mental health problems begin before the age of 24, and 50% by the age of 14.[3]
  • 60% of children and young people in care are reported to experience emotional or mental health problems.[4]
  • Care leavers with poor mental health are at greater risk of experiencing homelessness and are twice as likely to have poor employment outcomes.[5]
  • 36% of children with learning disabilities have mental health problems[6]
  • Children frequently bullied are twice as likely to access mental health services, and at age 50 are 30% more likely to use mental health services[7]
  • Long-term costs associated with childhood mental health problems are estimated to be £2.35 billion, and the short-term costs £1.58 billion[8]

The Children’s Society’s Good Childhood Reports 2015[9] and 2016[10] revealed that:

  • We are in a lost decade of children’s well-being. Improvements in children’s overall life satisfaction have stalled since 2008.
  • 5-10% of children in the UK experience the lowest levels of well-being.
  • 16 year olds are over three times more likely to have low levels of life satisfaction than younger children.
  • Half of children with low life satisfaction have mental health issues to some extent.

What is Mental Health?

Mental health is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.[1] So mental health is not just about problems, it is about living a ‘good’ and productive life.  It is important not just in childhood, but across the whole life course.

What is resilience?

Resilience can be described as being able to bounce back from adversity and succeed despite it. Some refer to resilience as being a personal characteristic, but rather resilience is shaped and built by an interaction with individuals and social determinant factors such as our experiences, opportunities and relationships.[2]

  • Other features of resilience:
  • It can accumulate and develop or reduce over time
  • Resilient people are not unharmed or invulnerable people
  • Highly resilient people cannot overcome all adversity
  • Inequalities in levels of resilience

Resilience isn’t something that everyone necessarily has. However, because it can be accumulated over time there is an opportunity to help children and young people become more resilience.

Risk and Resilience Factors

There are a range of factors that are known to either increase or reduce the risk of a child developing a mental health problem.[1]The more risk factors a child experiences, the higher the chances of developing a mental health problem.

Children who have experienced traumatic events such as abuse or violence of any kind are very likely to develop mental health problems; but so are children who experience loss, which could be through bereavement, but also could be family relationship problems (including inter-parental conflict) or parental divorce or separation and so on. This isn’t a comprehensive list, but highlights the traumas and difficulties some children have to live with.However, despite all this, some children can still be resilient.

Some risk factors that are particularly relevant to schools.These include bullying, sexual harassment (especially for girls[2]), family problems, pressures from school work and exams and so on. Schools can help address these issues, and really help make a difference for their pupils.

The following two examples illustrate what schools can do to help address some of these risk factors.  Whilst they are not mental health problems in themselves, they

  • are likely to impact on mental health and wellbeing. If not addressed could lead to mental health problems.
  • As recommended by the Early Intervention Foundation, schools could have a greater role in identifying children and families affected by parental conflict, signposting to other services or supporting children through school counselling initiatives.[1]
  • The End Violence Against Women Coalition,[2] highlighted the extent of sexual harassment on girls in schools and recommended that Government give clear guidance to schools on their obligations and how to respond to sexual harassment and violence experience by girls.

Whole System Approach

Children and young people’s mental health doesn’t stop at the school gate, or indeed when a child leaves the clinic. Mental health issues need to be seen within the context of children and young people’s lives.

As emphasised in Future in Mind and other documents, children and young people’s mental health requires a whole systems approach. This covers the whole spectrum of need from promotion and prevention through to specialist mental health services. Indeed each local area should have a local transformation plan (LTP) that sets out how this will be put into practice.

Schools have an important role to play in the development and implementation of these plans. NHS England’s analysis of LTPs, found that the 6th most common KPI related to schools.[1]Our own analysis of a representative sample of LTPs found that 69% had consulted with schools, and 64% had involved schools in strategic planning.[2]So the narrative as a whole regarding LTPs is generally positive. However, according to a survey sent to school leaders by ASCL and NCB, only a quarter of people who responded to their survey were aware of the plan.[3] So there is a mismatch on the ground regarding these plans.

Despite good policy in the form of Future in Mind, we know that this whole system approach is not always successfully implemented at local level.So we can keep tweaking policy, but what is needed is implementation on the ground.

Values Based Approach

The Coalition is a co-sponsor of the Values Based Child and Adolescent Mental Health Commission.[1] This Commission took a values based approach, which means what different stakeholders think matters. Often problems happen when there are tensions between these values. The Commission gathered evidence from a range of professionals including NHS, schools, etc., but also young people and their parents/carers. Following are their recommendations regarding schools:

Recognise the role of schools and fund them appropriately. Governments should formally recognise schools as a crucial component of the CAMHS system in the following ways.

  • Undertake mental health impact assess­ments to ensure that both schools/education policy and wider government policy and legislation are not detrimental to children and young people’s mental health.
  • Help schools to develop a framework for empowering and enabling children and young people to better understand their own mental health and to advocate for themselves. Schools should be able to teach children and young people about mental health in the same way they teach them about literacy or numeracy.
  • Ensure that schools are able to identify mental health issues and can easily sign­post pupils to relevant support, either within the school or their local community, and have the accountability to do this.

What Children and Young People Want?

We know from groups such as the Youth Select Committee and the UK Youth Parliament that mental health is important to children and young people. The Youth Select Committee’s[1] report on mental health included a number of recommendations relevant to schools, such as:

  • Statutory levels of attainment for mental health education from the age of 5’, and that Ofsted should assess them.
  • Mandatory minimum training for teachers on young people’s mental health.
  • Plans for how to support pupils in managing stress during the exam period.

These recommendations are sensible and some are being implemented.One outstanding issue is children and young people learning about mental health and how to look after themselves. Some schools are doing this, but as it isn’t statutory it is a varied picture.

School Readiness

Ensuring a child is ready to attend school is important and impacts on their ability to do well. So it is important the Committee thinks about preschool settings and what happens at home, as well as what happens once children start school.

Whilst children develop at different rates, there are a number of developmental milestones that you would expect a child to have reached when they start school such as being able to use the toilet independently, normal weight for age, speech, etc., but there are also psychological milestones such as being able to interact and form relationships with peers, and manage feelings and behaviours.[1]We know from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile data that 69.3% of children achieved a good level of development, which means that nearly a third didn’t.[2]This covers a whole range of developmental measures including personal, social and emotional development.

There are inequalities around achieving a good level of development. For instance, children growing up in more deprived areas and boys are less likely to reach a good level of development.[3] School readiness at age 5 has been shown to have a significant impact on outcomes both in childhood and into adulthood.[4] For instance, we know that if a child has problems reading at this stage, it can be very difficult for them to catch up.We also know that early on-set behavioural problems can continue during childhood into adulthood. It is essential that children get off to the best start in life and are able to achieve a good level of development. This requires the availability of support when necessary.

Lower attainment scores for children in the early years have been found when their mothers experience poor mental health.[5] Parental mental health problems have an adverse effect on the parent infant relationship, which has a significant impact on the child’s cognitive and behavioural functioning, attachment and social development. [6] Maternal depression and parenting stress both have a direct negative effect on the home environment,[7] which in turn effects child development in the early years.

Early years practitioners are well placed to provide advice and assistance to parents at key points in their child’s development. They can also have an important influence on behaviour management and communication development – important protective factors in addressing the emergence of mental health problems.

What happens in nurseries or pre-school settings, at home, support from health visitors, etc., are all essential.Local support services that can act early are vital. We are very concerned about the impact of cuts to public health and health visiting with regards to promoting both maternal and infant mental health in the early years. There will be a 3.9% real terms reduction in the public health budget each year until 2020/21.[8] There is already evidence that funding reductions have led to a slowdown in the number of trainee health visitors and missed targets for enrolment on university courses.[9]

The Department for Health are currently consulting on removing the legal requirement to undertake a set number of health visitor assessments in the first two-and-a-half years.[10] Combined with funding reductions any removal of mandated appointments poses a risk to the coverage of health visitor assessments and the likelihood of maternal and infant health and wellbeing problems identified early.[11]

Schools and Colleges as a Hub for Mental Health Support

What Schools Can Do Themselves

Most schools are working to support their pupils’ mental health and wellbeing e.g. PSHE lessons on mental health awareness and wellbeing.[1] However, issues such as financial constraints within school budgets can make it difficult to buy in services such as counselling. About 64% of primary schools do not have access to a school based counsellor[2] and 63% of school leaders (mainly secondary) reported that limited funding made providing mental health support within school challenging.[3]
 

While in recent years, some schools faced with the reduction of support from external public services have embraced their role as service commissioners and have bought in or directly employed a range of therapeutic services. It is now possible that strides made in building their capacity to provide more targeted services are at risk. With the challenge of balancing school budgets set to be even greater over the next few years, concerns about meeting or sustaining educational targets, particularly in the context of a new and potentially more challenging curriculum for some young people, schools will be faced with difficult choices. While the loss of teaching staff will make the headlines, the loss of support and therapeutic services are unlikely to draw the same response - despite the evidence that mentally healthy and well-supported young people tend to do better academically than those who lack this support.[4]
 

Schools are key partners of a wider system needed to support pupils’ mental health.With appropriate training and support, school staff are very able to recognise and support less severe mental health and emotional wellbeing issues in their pupils; and potentially are in a good position to identify risk factors that might impact on mental health, e.g. parental conflict, parental mental health, etc.This is not about school staff being mental health professionals or social workers, but about working with partners to address these issues much like safeguarding arrangements.We know that many schools are already doing this, but it is essential that all schools are able to refer on to targeted support - whether in the school or community, when necessary.
 

We aren’t starting from scratch, as there are many examples of good practice across the country. The CYPMHC collated case studies when working with Public Health England on a framework to help schools implement a whole school approach to promoting mental health and wellbeing. These help illustrate some of the good work already happening.[5]
 

SCHOOLS NorthEast, which is the only regional network of schools in the country, has just launched a schools-led mental health commission called Healthy MindED[6], which is chaired by our Chair, Prof Dame Sue Bailey. They will be looking at approaches which can be adopted by all schools in their region, but would be helpful for all schools. This Commission will help this Inquiry by being solution focused from schools’ perspective.That is important, because if we want real change, it has to work for schools.

Access to Targeted Support

Children and young people tell us that they want access to mental health support when, how, and where they need it. Schools are ideally placed to be a hub for mental health support because this is where the majority of children and young people are - though it is important to recognise that a significant number of post-16s and a smaller number of under 16s study in the FE sector thus colleges also have part to play in this too. Schools can work with partners to provide a public health approach, which can potentially promote the mental health and wellbeing of all pupils, as well as providing access to targeted and specialist services.
 

School-based counselling is one of the most prevalent forms of psychological therapy for children and young people with between 50,000– 70,000 cases seen in England’s secondary schools.[1]Children in Wales and Northern Ireland are already supported by national school-based counselling programmes, funded by their governments, while England lags behind. The Welsh Government’s Counselling for Children and Young People statistical report showed that 89% of children and young people did not need onward referral after receiving counselling.[2]

School-based counselling is an effective and non-stigmatising intervention proven to reduce psychological distress of children and young people and provide them with skills to help them manage their mental and emotional wellbeing.
Counsellors in schools and colleges can play an instrumental role in the promotion of positive mental health and well-being, working alongside and complementing other health and social care workers in schools as well as teachers and parents. School counselling can also be an important parallel support alongside specialist CAMHS as well as a tapering intervention once CAMHS interventions are completed to further consolidate support.

The Department for Education’s report, Counselling in Schools: a blueprint for the future, sets out an expectation from government that all schools in the future should provide access to counselling services.[1] It outlines how “counselling within secondary schools has been shown to bring about significant reductions in psychological distress in the short-term, and helps young people move closer towards their personal goals.”

Despite the recent acknowledgments from the Department of Health and Department for Education about its importance, there has been little movement towards a policy of universal provision for school counselling, and coverage in England remains patchy.

It is also important to recognise that some young people do not want to access talking therapies in schools, preferring the greater anonymity of using local community-based support such as in the VCS. There is also some evidence that those who independently seek help from agencies outside schools are young people who are experiencing a greater level of mental health distress than those accessing services in the school context.[2]

 

Three Key Principles & the Whole School Approach

Building on our framework for a whole school approach, which we developed with Public Health England,[1] we believe that the following 3 principles need to be in place in order to enable schools to fulfil their role regarding supporting mental health and wellbeing. These 3 principles need to fit within a whole school approach to promoting mental health and wellbeing.

 

Better Balance Between Wellbeing and Attainment

  • School leaders, teachers, parents and those governing or inspecting schools need to actively advocate pupil mental health and wellbeing alongside academic achievement.  
  • Need a better balance in the curriculum – incorporate mental health and wellbeing within the wider curriculum and/or as part of PSHE lessons.
  • These lessons need to be well taught, of high quality and address pupils’ needs.
  • Virtuous Circle where programmes to support social and emotional learning promote attainment; and a good education, which is a protective factor for mental health, can help reduce the chances of developing mental health problems.
  • Encourage and fund schools to use evidence based programmes and implement them properly in order to get desired outcomes.
  • Develop a resource where teachers can find useful information about programmes and other resources around mental health and wellbeing.

 

Better Training and Support for Staff on Mental Health

  • Staff should be better trained and supported to have an understanding of children and young people’s mental health and wellbeing and child and young people’s development.
  • Training should be for both new and existing teachers.
  • It needs to be fit for purpose and should offer a module around mental health and wellbeing, that equips them to deal with issues in practice.
  • Continued professional development is essential to keep skills up to date and ensure all teachers have adequate training. This can be achieved through a variety of means e.g. online learning, sharing of best practice across the sector, and relevant practical resources and books - it isn’t just about INSET training.Teachers are already using MindEd, which is a free, online educational resource on children and young people’s mental health. We should encourage teachers to use this resource, alongside other training they receive.[1]
  • They need to be more aware of their own mental health and how to look after it. They should be able to identify and respond compassionately to mental health problems, and signpost a pupil to targeted support.
  • Culture of the school includes support for teachers.
  • Need to build in time in the busy school day for supervision.

 

Better Support for Children and Young People When Needed

There needs to be more support in schools and colleges to promote the mental health and wellbeing of all pupils.

  • Staff and pupils need to be alert to pupil’s mental health, both in terms of problems in their lives that impact on their mental health e.g. problems at home (including inter-parental conflict), and emerging or existing mental health problems.
  • Confident that support is easily available for those who need it. This support could be available within the school or the community, and could be provided by statutory services e.g. CAMHS or other providers such as the voluntary sector. It could include support for families as well.
  • Schools should be included in Health and Wellbeing Boards, and contribute to the Commissioning Strategy.
  • There needs to be close links with local and national organisations that provide information and knowledge about mental health as well as those that provide support services.
  • Schools need to involve parents/carers and families because a child’s life extends beyond the school gate, so promoting a community based approach.

 

Appendix 1

Children and Young People’s Mental Health Coalition’s Recommendations

  • DfE to recommend that schools strive towards a better balance in the curriculum, which incorporates mental health and wellbeing with PSHE lessons or within the wider curriculum. These lessons need to be high quality, well executed, age appropriate and meet pupils’ needs.
  • Schools should be adequately funded and supported to play their part, within a wider system, to support pupils’ mental health and wellbeing.
  • All school staff should receive high quality and fit for purpose training around child development and mental health that gives them a better understanding of mental health, but also is of practical benefit to them in the classroom.
  • This training will help schools inform pupils about mental health and wellbeing, and identify and signpost them to further support when needed.
  • The Prime Minister recently announced improvements in training, which we fully support. Child development and mental health are complex subjects so we want to ensure that training for school staff is ongoing, of high quality, practical and reflective of the individual needs of each region and school.
  • Need to support the mental health and wellbeing of school staff, so they are less stressed. This should help retention rates, but also help demonstrate to pupils what it means to be mentally healthy.
  • There needs to be more targeted support within schools which meet pupils’ needs - this could be a school counsellor, nurture groups, parenting support and so on.
  • Linked to this, is the need for the full range of mental health support within the community - NHS CAMHS services, voluntary sector services, social care and so on depending on need.
  • Need good relationships between schools and other partners such as CAMHS, social care and so on, to establish joint working arrangements, referral pathways, share skills, knowledge and expertise, so they can train and learn from each other.
  • DfE continues to encourage schools to implement a whole school approach to promoting mental health and wellbeing.
  • We suggest that local authorities and CCGs involve schools in Health and Wellbeing Boards and other strategic bodies within the area. So schools are involved as key players in Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs), local transformation work, commissioning plans and so on.
  • Issues about how to put this into practice should be covered in the forthcoming Green Paper on children and young people’s mental health, recently announced by the Prime Minister.
  • We need a properly funded public health approach to children and young people’s mental health that starts from conception, to get every child off to a good start in life.

 

 

[1] MindEd https://www.minded.org.uk/

 

[1] PHE &CYPMHC (2015) http://cypmhc.org.uk/sites/cypmhc.org.uk/files/Promoting%20CYP%20Emotional%20Health%20and%20Wellbeing%20Whole%20School%20Approach.pdf

 

 

[1] DfE (2015) Counselling in Schools. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/counselling-in-schools

[2] Youth Access (2015)  Presentation to BACP Research Conference 2015. http://www.youthaccess.org.uk/our-work/counselling-study).

 

[1] Cooper, M. (2013) School-based counselling in UK secondary schools. http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/45319/1/SBC_review_2013_01_21_2_.docx

[2] Statistics for Wales (2016) Counselling for children and young people, 2014/15

 

[1] ASCL & NCB (2016) Ibid

[2] Place2Be & NAHT (2016) Children’s Mental Health Matters. https://www.place2be.org.uk/media/10046/Childrens_Mental_Health_Week_2016_report.pdf

[3] ASCL & NCB (2016) ibid

[4] PHE (2014) https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/370686/HT_briefing_layoutvFINALvii.pdf

[5] CYPMHC (2015) http://www.cypmhc.org.uk/schools

[6] Healthy MindED - http://www.schoolsnortheast.com/news-and-events/article/dame-sue-bailey-announced-as-chair-of-schools-led-mental-health-commission/

[1] PHE (2015) School readiness https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/459828/School_readiness_10_Sep_15.pdf

[2] DfE (2016) Early Years Foundation Stage Profile results in England, 2016. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/561224/SFR50_2016_Text.pdf

[3] NCB (2015) Poor beginnings. https://www.ncb.org.uk/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Policy_docs/ncb_poor_beginnings_report_final_for_web.pdf

[4] PHE (2015) ibid

[5] Kiernan, KE & Mensah, FK 2009, 'Poverty, Maternal Depression, Family Status and Children's Cognitive and Behavioural Development in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study' vol 38, no. 4, pp. 569-588.

[6] http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/310034/0097832.pdf

[7] Baker, C. E., & Iruka, I. U. (2013). Maternal psychological functioning and children’s school readiness: The mediating role of home environments for African American children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(3), 509–519.

[8] PHE (2015) http://www.local.gov.uk/documents/10180/11531/Letter+to+local+authorities+on+Spending+Review+2015/9935879f-b1a1-4064-b35f-7b9e588bdd27

[9] http://www.cypnow.co.uk/cyp/news/1157592/concerns-raised-over-health-visitor-training-figures

[10] http://www.cypnow.co.uk/cyp/news/1158100/health-visiting-review-ministers-to-consider-axing-family-health-checks

[11] http://www.cypnow.co.uk/cyp/news/1158437/health-visitor-chief-warns-against-scrapping-mandatory-checks

 

[1] Youth Select Committee (2015) https://www.parliament.uk/documents/youth-select-committee/Youth-Select-Committee-Report-2015.pdf

 

[1] Values-Based Child and Adolescent Mental Health System Commission (2016) What Really Matters in Children and Young People’s Mental Health. Royal College of Psychiatrists. http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/policyandparliamentary/values-basedcamhscommission.aspx

 

[1] NHS England (2016) https://www.england.nhs.uk/mentalhealth/wp-content/uploads/sites/29/2015/08/nhse-camhs-baselining-summary1.pdf

[2] CYPMHC (2016) Unpublished

[3] ASCL & NCB ( 2016) Keeping young people in mind: findings from a survey of schools across England. http://www.ascl.org.uk/news-and-views/news_news-detail.school-leaders-voice-concerns-over-children-s-mental-health-care.html

 

[1] Early Intervention Foundation (2016) http://www.endviolenceagainstwomen.org.uk/data/files/resources/78/All-Day-Every-Day-Sexual-violence-in-schools-legal-briefing-Sept-2016.pdf

[2]  End Violence Against Women Campaign (2016) Ibid

 

[1] CAMHS Review (2008) pp. 22-23, http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20081230004520/publications.dcsf.gov.uk/eorderingdownload/camhs-review.pdf

[2] End Violence Against Women Campaign (2016) All day, every day. http://www.endviolenceagainstwomen.org.uk/data/files/resources/78/All-Day-Every-Day-Sexual-violence-in-schools-legal-briefing-Sept-2016.pdf

 

[1] WHO (2014) http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/

[2] PHE  (2014) https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/370686/HT_briefing_layoutvFINALvii.pdf

 

[1] Green, H., et al. (2005) Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain 2004. London: Palgrave. http://bit.ly/2iFZhGn

[2] Brooks, F., et al. (2015) HBSC England National Report 2014. University of Hertfordshire; Hatfield, UK. http://www.hbscengland.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/National-Report-2015.pdf

[3] Davies, S. (2013) Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer 2012: our children deserve better.

London: Department of Health.

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fil...

[4] NICE (2013) Social and emotional wellbeing for children and young people [Online] Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/lgb12/chapter/introduction

[5] Dixon, J., Wade, J., Byford, S., Weatherly, H. and Lee, J. (2006) Young people leaving care: A study of costs and outcomes. York: University of York.

[6] Emerson, E. & Hatton, C. (2007) The mental health of children and adolescents with learning disabilities in Britain.  http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/emersone/FASSWeb/Emerson_07_FPLD_MentalHealth.pdf

[7] Evans-Lacko, S. et al. (2017) Childhood bullying victimization is associated with use of mental health services over five decades: a longitudinal nationally representative cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 47 (1)  127-135.

[8] Davis, S. ed. (2013) Ibid.

[9] Children’s Society (2015) http://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/what-we-do/resources-and-publications/the-good-childhood-report-2015

[10] Children’s Society (2016)  http://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/what-we-do/research/the-good-childhood-report

 

 

 

[1] PHE - https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/370686/HT_briefing_layoutvFINALvii.pdf

[2] Whole School and College Approach - http://cypmhc.org.uk/sites/cypmhc.org.uk/files/Promoting%20CYP%20Emotional%20Health%20and%20Wellbeing%20Whole%20School%20Approach.pdf

  •  

    [1] Healthy MindED - ibid

     

  1. [1] We have used the term school to refer to any educational settings including further education.

    [2] Resilience and Results - http://cypmhc.org.uk/sites/cypmhc.org.uk/files/Resilience_and_Results.pdf

    [3] Whole School and College Approach - http://cypmhc.org.uk/sites/cypmhc.org.uk/files/Promoting%20CYP%20Emotional%20Health%20and%20Wellbeing%20Whole%20School%20Approach.pdf

    [4] Future in Mind - https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/improving-mental-health-services-for-young-people

    [5] CYPMHC - work in progress

    [6] Healthy MindED - http://www.schoolsnortheast.com/news-and-events/article/dame-sue-bailey-announced-as-chair-of-schools-led-mental-health-commission/